Senin, 07 Januari 2013

Makalah : Principles of Behavioral Learning Theories


Learning is not just memorize or remember. Learning is a process characterized by the presence change in students. Changes as a result of the process of learning can be demonstrated in a variety of forms, such as changing the mindset of students, change attitudes and behavior. So the learning can be interpreted as a change in behavior caused by experience.
Along with the progress of time, a lot of learning theory emerged with the development of psychological theory. One of them is the famous behavioristik learning theory. Behavioristik learning theory is a theory of the type proposed by Gage and Berliner about changes in behavior as a result of the experience. It then evolved into stream of learning psychology that influence the development direction of the theory and practice of education and learning, known as behavioristik stream. This stream emphasizes the formation of observed behavior as a result of learning.

1.2.1   What are some principles of behavioral learning theories?
1.2.2   What is social learning theory?

1.3.1   To know the principles of behavioral learning theories.
1.3.2   Describe the social learning theory.


Principles of behavioral learning include the role of consequences, reinforcers, punishers, immediacy of consequences, shaping, extinction, schedules of reinforcement, maintenance and the role of antecedents. Each of these principles will be discussed in the sections that follow:
1)       The role of consequences
       Role of the consequences is the most important principles of behavioral learning theories. Behavior will change according to its consequences. Pleasant consequences will reinforce the behavior, while the consequences unpleasant behavior will weaken. For example, if students enjoy reading books, they will probably read more often. If they find the story boring,. But, If they find stories boring are unable to concentrate, they may read less often, choosing other activities instead. Pleasurable consequences are called reinforcers. Unpleasant consequences are called punishers
2)      Reinforcer
Reinforcers can be divided into two groups, namely primary and secondary. Primary Reinforser satisfying basic human needs, such as food, water, security, and sex. Secondary Reinforcer is a reinforser obtaining a value after reinforser associated with primary or other reinforcer been steady. For example, the money will be invaluable to a child if he knew that the money be used to buy food. The numbers in the report card will have value for students, if parents pay attention and judgment, and praise. Praise from parents has value because it compliments associated with love, romance, and other reinforcers. Money and number of report cards are examples of secondary reinforser, because they do not have their own value, but has recently been associated with reinforser value after primary or other reinforser more steady
There are three basic categories reinforcer secondary, is:
o   Social reinforcer (such as praise, smiles, or attention)
o   Reinforcer activities (such as the provision of toys, games, or activities that are fun)
o   Reinforcer symbolic (such as money, numbers, stars, or points that can be redeemed for reinforcers others).
       Often times, which is used in the school are the things that are given to students. Reinforcers is called positive reinforcer of praise, numbers and stars. However, at times to reinforce the behavior is to make the consequences of an escape from an unpleasant situation, for example, a teacher can free students from homework, if they do well in the classroom. If the homework students are considered as an unpleasant duty, it is free from homework is reinforcer. Reinforcers a form of escape from an unpleasant situation called negative reinforcer.
       An important principle of behavior is less desirable activities that can be enhanced by combining the activities favored or desired. For instance, a teacher said to his disciples, "If you have finished working on it, you should get out."
3)       Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcers
       Intrinsic reinforcers are reinforcers that come from inside are scientifically associated with the activity being reinforced. while extrinsic reinforcers are reinforcers that come from outside of ourselves that are not scientifically linked to the activity being reinforced
       Often, the most important reinforcer that maintains behavior is the pleasure inherent in engaging in the behavior. For example, most people have a hobby that they work on for extended periods without any reward. People like to draw, read, sing, play games, hike, or swim for no reason other than the fun of doing it. Reinforcers of this type are called intrinsic reinforcers, and people can be described as being intrinsically motivated to engage in a given activity. Intrinsic reinforcers are contrasted with extrinsic reinforcers, praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in a behavior that they might not engage in without it. There is evidence that reinforcing children for certain behaviors they would have done anyway can undermine long-term intrinsic motivation (Deci, Icoestner, & Ryan, 1999; Sethi, Drake, Dialdm, & Lepper, 1995). Research on this topic finds that the undermining effect of extrinsic reinforcers occurs only in a limited set of circumstances, in which rewards are provided to children for engaging in an activity without any standard of performance, and only if the activity is one that children would have done on their own without any reward (Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 1996; Eisenberger, Pierce, & Cameron, 1999). Verbal praise and other types of feedback are extrinsic reinforcers that have been found to increase, not decrease, intrinsic interest. What this research suggests for practice is that teachers should be cautious about giving tangible reinforcers to children for activities they would have done on their own. However, for most school tasks, which most students would not have done on their own, there is no basis for concern that use of extrinsic reinforcers will undermine intrinsic motivation, especially if those reinforcers are social and communicate recognition of students growing mastery and independence.

4)       Punisher          
Consequences that weaken behavior called punisher. For example, some students are happy when sent to the principal's office, because it releases them from the classroom, which they see as an unpleasant situation.
Presentation punishment is the use of unpleasant consequences, or aversive stimuli following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behavior will occur again. For example, when a student is scolded.
Removal punishment is withdrawal of an unpleasant consequence that reinforces certain behaviors, that are designed to minimize the possibility of such behavior will be repeated. For example, a child who is punished for being in the classroom at break time.

5)      Immediacy of Consequences
       One of the principles in behavioral learning theory is that consequences that immediately follow the behavior will more influence the behavior, than  consequences that late arrival. The principle of immediacy of these consequences are important in the classroom. Especially for elementary school students, praise given soon after the child was doing a good job, it can be a reinforcer stronger than the figures given later. Praise will encourage students to do better work for the next.
6)       Shaping
       In addition to immediacy of reinforcement, what would be reinforcement also need to be considered in teaching. Kindergarten teachers do not must withhold reinforcement until a child can say the whole alphabet. instead, it would be better praise the child knowing a single letter, then knowing a few letters, and finally being able to know the whole 26 letters. If a teacher is to guide students toward achieving the goals by giving reinforcement on the steps that lead to success, the teacher used a technique called the shaping.
       The term is used in the formation of behavioral learning theories in teaching new skills or behaviors by providing reinforcement to students approaching the end of the desired behavior.

7)      Extinction
By definition, reinforcers strengthen behavior. But, what happens when reinforcers are withdrawn? Eventually, the behavior will be weakened, and ultimately, it will disappear. This process is called extinction of a previously learned behavior.
            Extinction is rarely a smooth process. When reinforcers are withdrawn, individuals often increase their rate of behavior for a while. For example, think of a door that you've used as a shortcut to somewhere on campus you go frequently. Imagine that one day the door will not open. You may push even harder for a while, shake the door, turn the handle both ways, perhaps even kick the door. You are likely to feel frustrated and angry. However, after a short time you will realize that the door is locked and go away.
If the door is permanently locked (without your knowing it), you may try it a few times over the next few days, then perhaps once after a month; only eventually  will you give up on it. Your behavior when confronted by the locked door is a classic extinction pattern. Behavior intensifies when the reinforcer is first withdrawn, then rapidly weakens until the behavior disappears. still the behavior may return after much time has passed. For example, you could try the door again a year later to see whether it is still locked. If it is, you will probably leave it alone for a longer time, but probably not forever.
8)      Schedules of Reinforcement
The effects of reinforcement on behavior depend on many factors, one of them is the schedule of reinforcement. This term refers to the frequency given to reinforcers, that is the amount of time that pass by between opportunities to obtain reinforcement, and the predictability of reinforcement.
Schedules of reinforcement was four, namely Fixed Ratio (FR), Variable Ratio (VR), Fixed Interval (FI), Variable Interval (VI).
Ø  One of the common schedules of reinforcement is a fixed ratio schedule. Fixed ratio schedule is a schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcement is given after the action behavior in a fixed amount. For example, the teacher said, "The children after you complete these ten questions, you can go home." No matter how much the amount of time required, students strengthened, so they complete ten questions.
Ø  Variable ratio is one in schedule of reinforcement which the amount of behaviors required for reinforcement can not be predicted, although it’s certain that the behavior will eventually be strengthened. Examples of classroom consisting of 30 people, when students raise their hands to answer questions. Recording will never know when they will be able to be strengthened by giving the correct answer, but they can expect to be called one time in 30 opportunities.
Ø  Fixed interval schedule is a schedule of reinforcement that is only available at certain periodic times. The final exam is a classic example of a fixed interval schedule. This is evident in students who learn in a hurry at the last minute before the test.
Ø  Variable interval schedule is a schedule in which the behavior of a given strengthening gains after the amount of time that can not be predicted number. For example, when a teacher says that every time the meeting will be to conduct a discussion to the students before starting the lesson, the students have to learn all the time because they do not know when they will be appointed.
9)      Maintenance
Maintenance is the principle that makes it how sustainable behavior. Human beings live in a complex world filled with action for most natural reinforcement and behavioral skills that we learned in school. For example, students may initially will often require reinforcement to read. However, once they can read, they have the ability to open around the world written language of a world that is very reinforcing for most students. After a certain period, strengthening to read may not be needed anymore, since the content of the reading material itself to maintain the behavior.
Maintenance type of behavior also occurs in behavior need to be strengthened because it strengthens the intrinsic, meaning that involvement in such behavior fun. For example, many children who like to draw, dance or learn something, even if they were never encouraged to do so.

10)  The role of antecedent
The consequences of behavior influence behavior. But it is not just something that follows a behavior that has the effect. Stimuli that precede a behavior is crucial. Stimulation antecedents are events that precede the behavior, also known as cues, because that tells it what the behavior will be strengthened or what behaviors will be punished. Cues member clue when to change behavior and when to not. For example, during math class, most teachers will strengthen the students work on the problems. But after the teacher announced that math lesson is over and it's time for lunch, the consequences of such changes. Stimulation when it is said that "now is the lunch hour" is known as the discrimination stimuli.
Discrimination (difference) is the perception of and response to stimulus differences. Discrimination is the use of gestures, signs or information to know when behavior is likely to be strengthened. Teachers learn to distinguish facial cue words that indicate that students feel bored or not interested in teaching.
Generalization is an effort to maintain the behavior, skills, or concepts from one state to another. Generalizations can not be taken for granted. Typically, when a successful classroom management program is introduced in a state, the student's behavior does not necessarily increase in other circumstances. Instead students learn to distinguish among the various states. Generalization to occur, usually it has to be planned.

       Social learning theory is an extension of traditional behavioral learning theory. The theory was developed by Albert Bandura (1969). This theory has received most of the principles of behavioral learning theories, but gives more emphasis on the effects of cues on behavior, and the internal mental processes. In view of the social learning "humans were not driven by forces from within and also not being hit by environmental stimuli.  However, the function of psychology described as a continuous interaction and feedback from the determinants of personal and environmental determinants". (Bandura, 1977, pp. 11-12)
       Social learning theory emphasizes that environments are faced with someone who, incidentally, neighborhoods are often selected and altered by man through his behavior. According to Bandura, "most people learn through observation and selective recall the behavior of others". There are some lessons in social learning theory, including:
1)       Modeling
 Bandura noted that adherents Skinner emphasizes the effects of consequences on behavior and ignores the phenomenon of modeling, which imitate the behavior of others and experience (vicarious) andlearned from the successes and failures of others. He felt that most of the learning experienced by humans is not established from the consequences, but the man is learning from a model. Sports teachers demonstrate high jump and the students imitate. Bandura calls this "no-trial learning", because the students do not have to go through the process of forming (shaping process), but it can quickly generate a correct response.
Characteristics  modeling theory Bandura
a)      Elements of an abattoir is the main learning and imitation
b)      The behavior of the model may be learned through language, examples, and other values ​​– other
c)      Students mimic the abilities of the teachers demonstrated proficiency as a model
d)     Students gain the ability if obtaining satisfaction and positive reinforcement
e)      Learning processes include attention, remembering, imitation, with or reciprocal behavior accordingly, ending with a positive reinforcement

2)      Learning phase
According to Bandura (1977) there are four phases of the model, that are the phase of attention, the reproductive phase and phase motivation.
a)      Attention phase
The first phase in an observational study is to give attention to a model. In general, the students pay attention to the models attractive, successful, generate interest and popular. This is why many students reflect on clothing, hair styling, and attitudes movie stars. Other examples, such as a music player no confidence may mimic the behavior of well-known music player that does not show his own style.
b)      Considering phase
The ability to store information is an important part of the learning process.
c)      Reproduction phase motion
Allow reproduction phase model or instructor to see if the components of a sequence of behavior has been dominated by the study. There is only part of a sequence of behaviors that are coded correctly and owned. For example, a teacher may find the following model procedures for solving quadratic equations, that some students can only solve part of the equation. They may need help in mastering the entire sequence to solve a quadratic equation it. Lack appearance can only be known, when students are asked to display. That's why the reproductive phase is needed.
d)     Motivation phase
Last phase in the process of observational learning is the motivation phase. The students will imitate a model, because they feel that by doing so they will increase the possibility of acquiring reinforcement.
3)      Learning Vicarious
People who learn to see people given a time punishment reinforcement or engage in certain behaviors. This is called learning "vicarious". Learning through observation can occur through the conditions experienced by others, for example: a student saw her praised and reprimanded by his teachers because of his actions, he then mimic other acts the same goal to be praised by the teacher. This incident is an example of reinforcement through praise the experience of others. Classroom teachers have always used the principle of vicarious learning. If a student misbehave, the teacher noticed the kids that work well, and they praise their good because work it. Naughty child saw that works derive reinforcement, so he went back to work.
4)      Self-regulation
Another important concept in studying observational is setting themselves or "self regulation". Bandura hypothesized that humans observe their own behavior, consider the (judge) his behavior towards the formulation of its own criteria, and then gave reinforcement or punishment on himself.

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